One of the most ardent critics of ordinary language philosophy was a student at Oxford, Ernest Gellner who said:, "[A]t that time the orthodoxy best described as linguistic philosophy, inspired by Wittgenstein, was crystallizing and seemed to me totally and utterly misguided. 1959 . Firstly, because they believed it distorted the ordinary use of language, and this distortion was itself a source of philosophical problems. Aldershot: Ashgate. It is on the basis of this argument that Malcolm claims that Moore, in the imagined dispute with Russell, actually refutes the philosophical propositions in question – merely by pointing out that they do ‘go against ordinary language’ (1942a, pp. Wittgenstein, Ludwig. But nevertheless they retained the view that philosophical uses of language can be a source of philosophical confusions and that the observation and study of ordinary language would help to resolve them. Oxford: Blackwell. The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap. 1963 . Ryle, indeed, became a champion of ‘ordinary language’, writing, in his early career, a number of papers dealing with such issues as what counts as ‘ordinary’ language, what are the nature of ‘meanings’, and how the appeal to ordinary ways of describing things can help resolve philosophical problems (including his 1931, 1953, 1957, 1961). Although formal symbolic logic was developed initially in order to analyze and explore the structure of arguments, in particular the structure of ‘validity’, its success soon led many to see applications for it within the realm of natural language. So, of interest are the states of affairs that come under philosophical dispute, for example cases which we would ordinarily call cases of, say ‘free-will’, cases of ‘seeing some object’, cases of ‘knowing something for certain’ and so forth. Here, he says nothing to the effect that Moore has proven that it is true that there are in fact chairs and tables before us, and so forth. Wittgenstein’s view was that whatever philosophy does, it simply describes what is open to view to anyone. The reason this objection applies less-so to the early Ordinary Language philosophers is that, for the Wittgensteinians, claims as to what is ‘ordinarily said’ applied in much more general ways. ordinary language philosophy a detailed analysis of language in use. Oxford: Blackwell. However, this does not establish that the skeptical use is the ordinary use, because the skeptical use depends on the prior existence, and general acceptance, of the original use. 119). 2003. New York: Routledge. (Ed.). Strawson (1919 - 2006), John Austin (1911 - 1960) and Gilbert Ryle, stressed the importance of studying natural language without regard to the truth-conditions of sentences and the references of terms. Logico-Linguistic Papers. Weitz, Morris. Contextualism, the view that has its origins in Ordinary Language philosophy, has support from, for example, Recanati (2004) and Travis (who argues for the ‘occasion-sensitivity’ of meaning, see his 1996). Nevertheless, challenges to the very idea of ordinary versus non-ordinary uses of language came from other quarters. Contents [hide] 1 History . I review the debates on linguistic philosophy and between ordinary and ideal language philosophy. By this I do not mean that the expression need be one that is frequently used. Tennessen, Herman. Supporters of the notion of the context (or use)-sensitivity of meaning object to Grice’s original argument: that we really can cleave a distinctly semantic content from all other aspects of language use. The label ‘ordinary language philosophy’ was more often used by the enemies than by the alleged practitioners of what it was intended to designate. Similar arguments sometimes involve ordinary language philosophy with other anti-essentialist movements like post-structuralism. For the Positivists, ‘pseudo-propositions’ are those which present themselves as if they were factual propositions, but which are, in fact, not. 1958. (For more on this aspect of a use-theory, see for example Malcolm 1940; 1951.). 1999. An account is required of what the Ordinary Language philosophers counted as ‘ordinary’ uses of language, as non-ordinary uses, and why the latter was thought to be the source of philosophical problems, rather than elements of their solution. Ordinary language philosophy is an historical episode in analytic philosophy whose practitioners, inspired by Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), believed that all of the major problems of philosophy were either pseudo-problems that could be dispelled with reference to ordinary language, or genuine problems that could be solved by investigating how certain words were used. Ideal language philosophy has often been pragmatically defended as being more suc-cessful than non-linguistic and ordinary language philosophy in solving or dissolving philosophical problems. Contrary to this view, according to Ordinary Language philosophy, it is the attempt to construct an ideal language that leads to philosophical problems, since it involves the non-ordinary uses of language. The latter interpretation of Ordinary Language philosophy was, and is, widespread. “Use, Usage and Meaning.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes 35, 223-230. It is sometimes the case that an expression has distinct uses within distinct discourses, for example, the expression ‘empty space’. The Philosophy of Philosophy. “Thought.” In M. Beaney, ed., The Frege Reader. 17-18). And if their hearers understand what they are being told, they too are in no such perplexity that they need to have this meaning philosophically “analysed” or “clarified” for them. Unlike the Cambridge analysts, however, who merely thought metaphysics had to be done differently, that is more rigorously, the Logical Positivists thought it should not be done at all. As regards ‘other minds’, psychological phenomena are available publicly in certain behaviors (which are not mere ‘signs’ of what is going on internally in others, but partially what constitutes what it is to attribute such things, for example, as ‘believing X’, ‘thinking about Y’, and so forth). Therefore, material objects are (for us) imperceptible. 1964 . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 119-127. This is a prime example, as will be shown, of conflating the claim that ordinary language is correct with the claim that what is expressed in the ordinary use of some expression is true. London: George Allen and Unwin. Certainly for the most part, metaphysical theses are presented as necessary truths, as there are separate difficulties in doing otherwise. Noté /5. However, most appear to object to it because it apparently rules out the possibility of a systematic theory of meaning. By way of contrast, if the utterer meant, by the expression, ‘I do not know if this is a desk before me, because I do not know the truth of any material-object statement, or I do not know if any independent objects exist outside my mind’ – then, we might say this was a non-ordinary use of the term ‘know’. It is sometimes associated with the later work of Ludwig Wittgenstein and a number of mid-20th century philosophers who can be split into two main groups, neither of which could be described as an organized "school". Recanati, Francois. 1992 . “Certainty and Empirical Statements.” Mind 52, 18-36. We have met this idea already in some preliminary remarks about a use-theory of meaning (in section 2d above). Malcolm described the notion of the ordinary use of some expression thus: By an “ordinary expression” I mean an expression which has an ordinary use, i.e. Excellent collection of essays targeting the Minimalist/Contextualist debate about linguistic meaning. They cleaved closely to the views they believed they found in Wittgenstein’s work, much of which was distributed about Cambridge, and eventually Oxford, as manuscripts or lecture notes that were not published until some time later (for example The Blue and Brown Books (1958) and the seminal Philosophical Investigations (1953)). 28). which is ordinarily used to describe a certain sort of situation. Russell’s work encouraged the view that language is meaningful in virtue of this underlying representational and truth-functional nature. Key to Austin’s achievement here was his development of the idea that the utterances of sentences in the use of language are not all of the same kind: not all utterances represent some aspect of the world (for example, not all utterances are assertions). A ‘logic of science’ would be based on an ideal language – one which is of a perfectly perspicuous logical form, comprised exhaustively of factual propositions, logical propositions and nothing else. The article presents, clarifies, defends, and shows the contemporary relevance of ordinary language philosophy (OLP), as a general approach to the understanding and dissolution of at least very many traditional and contemporary philosophical difficulties. 1997. (Ed.). Austin demonstrated, through his explorations, the flexibility of language, how subtle variations in meaning were possible, how delicate, sometimes, is the choice of a word for saying what one wants or needs to say. Malcolm, Norman. The remainder of the 20 th century saw the rise of the general ‘ideal language’ approach, including a commitment to versions of truth-conditional theories of meaning, to a position of dominance. This is the sort of proposition that would follow from the philosophical thesis that all we are acquainted with in perception is sense-data, and that we do not perceive independent, external objects directly (See Russell 1927, pp. Schilpp, Paul Arthur. Thus, for example, an expression has an invariant semantic content even though, in its use, it may have a variety of conversational implicatures. Hence, on this take, philosophy does not merely have a negative outcome (the ‘dissolution’ of philosophical problems), and Ordinary Language philosophy need not be understood as quietist or even nihilist as has been sometimes charged. 1927. They were, first and foremost, logicians studying formal languages and, through these formal languages, ‘language’ in general. An ideal language, according to Wittgenstein, was understood to actually share a structure with metaphysical reality. The Frege Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Ed.). These approaches typically involve eschewing philosophical "theories" in favour of close attention to the details of the use of everyday, "ordinary" language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. He showed that, even in its most ordinary uses, language is indeed a much finer, sensitive and precise instrument than had previously been acknowledged. London: Macmillan, 190-203. From about 1910 to 1930, analytic philosophers like Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein emphasized creating an ideal language for philosophical analysis, which would be free from the ambiguities of ordinary language that, in their opinion, often made philosophy invalid. On the contrary Wittgenstein claimed: Philosophy simply puts everything before us, and neither explains nor deduces anything. (Ed.). ‘Oxford’ philosophy was still ‘linguistic’, but much less dogmatically so, much more flexible in its approach, much less interested in metaphilosophical justification for their views and rather more interested in applying their views to real, current, philosophical problems. Since the elementary proposition that claims that there is such an X is straightforwardly false, then by the rules of the propositional calculus this renders the entire complex proposition straightforwardly false. A spectrum of positions now runs between radical extremes of how much of what we want to call ‘meaning’ is determined by semantics, and how much by pragmatics. 1964 [1942a]. Examples of such phenomena include, for example, indexicality, quantifier domain restriction, seemingly relative or ‘scalar’ terms such as ‘tall’, ‘rich’ and so on. Turning to the language-mind relationship, there are myriad connections between language and mentality. However, it must be kept in mind that what Malcolm is claiming to be true and false here are the linguistic versions of the dispute: he claims that Moore’s assertion that “It is a correct use of language to say that ‘I am certain this is a desk before me’” is true – he does not argue that Moore has proven there is a desk before him. The first stirrings of the Ordinary Language views emerged as a reaction against the prevailing Logical Atomist, and later, Logical Positivist views that had been initially (ironically) developed by Wittgenstein himself, and published in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus in 1921. “Are Necessary Propositions Really Verbal?” Mind 69, 189-203. Most thoughts are not about thoughts. Strawson, Peter Frederick. (1942a, pp. His argument is roughly this: not only are metaphysical philosophical disputes not based on any facts, but metaphysical claims are, generally, claims to necessary rather than ordinary, contingent truth (that is, a philosophical thesis does not claim that sometimes we cannot be certain of a material-thing statement, for that is perfectly true and we all know this; rather the philosophical thesis says that it is never the case that such statements are certain). 1944. Although Ordinary Language philosophy and Logical Positivism share the conviction that philosophical problems are ‘linguistic’ problems, and therefore that the method proper to philosophy is ‘linguistic analysis’, they differ vastly as to what such analysis amounts to, and what the aims of carrying it out are. 1960. Early analytic philosophy had a less positive view of ordinary language. 1965 . “On Denoting.” In H. Feigl and W. Sellars, eds., Readings in Philosophical Analysis. This is known as the principle of compositionality (see Davidson’s Philosophy of Language, section 1a, i). xiv). Thus, observations about variations in the use of some expression will tell us nothing about its meaning. However, this appearance of co-operative reconciliation – that at least some kind of semantics-pragmatics interaction will provide a complete theory of language – is to a certain extent merely a façade of orthodoxy, which obscures somewhat more radical underlying views. Addresses the debate regarding ‘what we say’, and some Oxford Ordinary Language philosophical disputes. Ramsey, Frank P. 1959 . According to Malcolm, its use in epistemological skepticism is non-ordinary. This is not to say that whatever is said using language ordinarily is thereby actually true. (1992, pp. Clarity is not Enough: Essays in Criticism of Linguistic Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. And this description gets its light, that is to say its purpose, from the philosophical problems. To make philosophy the study of thought is to insist that philosophers’ thoughts should be about thoughts. Such ‘philosophical’ uses of language, on this view, create the very philosophical problems they are employed to solve. All empirical statements are hypotheses, 12. Pears, David. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1995 . Ordinary language philosophy is a philosophical methodology that sees traditional philosophical problems as rooted in misunderstandings philosophers develop by distorting or forgetting what words actually mean in everyday use. Wittgenstein’s version of Atomism became known as the ‘picture theory’ of language, and ultimately became the focus of the view he later rejected. To recall an example we are now familiar with – the term ‘know’ – Grice argued that, for example, when Malcolm contended that the skeptical use of ‘know’ is a misuse of that term, that this claim shows nothing relevant about the meaning of the term or the expressions in which it features. These are, of course, not empirical problems; they are solved rather by looking into the workings of our language, and that in such a way as to make us recognise these workings; in despite of an urge to misunderstand them. Stanley, Jason and Gendler Szabó, Zoltán. Properly ‘empirical’ propositions are those, according to the Positivists, that are ‘about’ the world, they are ‘factual’, have ‘content’ and their truth-values are determined strictly by the way the world is; but most crucially, they can be confirmed or disconfirmed by empirical observation of the world (testing, experimenting, observing via instruments, and so forth). The assertion of contradictions, according to this view, has no use for us in our language (so far at least), and therefore they have no meaning (clearly, this is an aspect of the use-theory of meaning at work). The practitioners of any discipline have thoughts and communicate them, but they are rarely studying those very thoughts: rather, they are studying what their thoughts are about. Indeed, Ryle noted his sense of this paradox quite early on: …if the expressions under consideration [in philosophical arguments] are intelligently used, their employers must always know what they mean and do not need the aid or admonition of philosophers before they can understand what they are saying. Frege, the Vienna Circle (especially Rudolf Carnap), the young Wittgenstein, and W.V. It need only be an expression which would be used… To be an ordinary expression it must have a commonly accepted use; it need not be the case that it is ever used. The Analysis of Matter. To the view that logical analysis would reveal a ‘logically perfect’ truth-functional language that lurked beneath ordinary language (but was obscured by it), Russell added that the most elementary constituents of the true logical form of a proposition (‘logical atoms’) correspond with the most elementary constituents of reality. or What is Consciousness? Abstract Artificial language philosophy (also called ‘ ideal language philosophy ’) is the position that philosophical problems are best solved or dissolved through a reform of language. The terminology popular in the day is partly to blame for the general disdain of this view (which was only a ‘doctrine’ as such in the hands of the Positivists), as it sounds as though the claim is that necessary propositions, because they are ‘linguistic’, are not to be understood as being about the world and the way things are in it, but about words, or even about the ways words are used. Indeed, the metaphysical thesis itself is beside the point. London: Oxford University Press. 3). “Philosophers and Ordinary Language.” In R. Rorty, ed., The Linguistic Turn. Devitt, Michael and Sterelny, Kim. 9). London: Gollancz. 11). We may well discover, after investigation, that there is no single entity to which the word 'truth' corresponds, something Wittgenstein attempts to get across via his concept of a 'family resemblance' (cf. Lycan, William. London: Hutchinson. ideal language philosophy. 1992 . This is a classic example of the so-called ‘paradigm-case argument’. “Philosophy and the Abuse of Language.” Journal of Philosophy 44, 533-546. The availability of ways in language to mark the distinction between illusions and veridical experiences demonstrates, according to Austin, that the sense-data argument is invalid – because those terms, which have ordinary uses in language, are misused in the sense-data theory. That is to say, from the fact that they are used in ordinary language, we may infer that there is something to which they truly apply” (pp. Ideal language, in analytic philosophy, a language that is precise, free of ambiguity, and clear in structure, on the model of symbolic logic, as contrasted with ordinary language… Ordinary language philosophy By Martinich, A.P. Thus, the objection that, according to Ordinary Language philosophy, non-ordinary uses, or new, revised or technical uses of expressions are to be prohibited from philosophy is generally unfounded – though it is an interpretation of Ordinary Language philosophy that survives into the present day. (1949, pp. Frege, Gottlob. Russell, Bertrand. 192; 1942b) On this view, it is through linguistic practice that we establish the distinction between necessary and contingent propositions. For them, the thought in distinguishing ‘linguistic’ from ‘factual’ propositions was that the former are ‘rules of language’, and therefore truth-valueless, or ‘non-cognitive’. Philosophy is not, on this approach, a matter of theorizing about ‘how reality really is’ and then confirming such philosophical ‘facts’ – generally, not obvious to everyday experience – through special philosophical techniques, such as analysis. According to Malcolm, the implication that what is expressed in certain ordinary uses of language is necessarily false, or metaphysically impossible, renders those uses ‘self-contradictory’ (1942a, pp. The Wittgensteinians saw themselves as developing and extending Wittgenstein’s views, despite the fact that the key principle in Wittgenstein’s work (both earlier and later) was that philosophical ‘theses’, as such, cannot be stated. Proponents of linguistic philosophy hold that all non-empirical philosophical problems can be solved by either analyzing ordinary language or developing an ideal one. 1971. King, Jeffrey and Stanley, Jason. 1959. "Knowledge" is what you mean when you say "I know". However, since if the latter was what one meant when one uttered the original statement, then one would have to explain this use to a hearer (unless the philosophical use was established to be in play at an earlier moment) – that is, one would have to note that “I do not know if this is a desk before me” is being used in a different sense to the other (non-skeptical) one. Ideal language came to be seen as thoroughly misleading as to the true structure of reality. Suffice it to say here that, for the Ordinary Language philosopher, no proposition falls into a class – say ‘empirical’, ‘logical’, ‘necessary’, ‘contingent’ or ‘analytic’ or ‘synthetic’ and so forth in and of itself. Proponents of linguistic philosophy hold that all non-empirical philosophical problems can be solved by either analyzing ordinary language or developing an ideal one. But, on this view, one cannot be uttering self-contradictions and at the same time be saying something true or false for that matter. When trying to understand the role of ordinary language in Wittgenstein later Philosophy, the first difficulty one faces is to understand the mere meaning of the expression "Ordinary Language". But it is not necessary to interpret the claims this way. Proponents of linguistic philosophy hold that all non-empirical philosophical problems can be solved by either analyzing ordinary language or developing an ideal one. Logical Positivism cemented the Ideal Language view insofar as it accepted all of the elements we have identified; the view that ordinary language is misleading, and that underlying the vagueness and opacity of ordinary language is a precise and perspicuous language that is truth-functional and truth-conditional. 320), and his ‘linguistic’ philosophical credentials remained sound. In the second case, she must convince us that our ordinary use of the expression has, hitherto unbeknownst to us, been a misuse of language: we have, up till now, been asserting something that is necessarily false. You are able to say, on empirical grounds, that in this particular case when the person said that he knew for certain that a material-thing statement was true, he was mistaken…It is an empirical fact that sometimes when people use statements of the form: “I know for certain that p”, where p is a material-thing statement, what they say is false. “Commonsense Propositions and Philosophical Paradoxes.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 45, 1-25. (1946a). The conception of a truth-functional language is deeply connected with that of the truth-conditional conception of meaning for natural language. "Such 'philosophical' uses of language, on this view, create the very philosophical problems they are employed to solve. It is true that the notion of ‘philosophy as therapy’ is to be found in the texts of Wittgenstein (1953, Section 133) and particularly in Wisdom (1936; 1953). The argument can roughly be described as a difference as to the degree of independence (from pragmatics) that we can ascribe to linguistic meaning. Dummett (1973), for example, has complained that: …[although] the ‘philosophy of ordinary language’ was indeed a species of linguistic philosophy, [it was] one which was contrary to the spirit of Frege in two fundamental ways, namely in its dogmatic denial of the possibility of system, and in its treatment of natural language as immune from criticism. At least one question that has not fully entered the debate is why a ‘linguistic’ problem is understood to be so philosophically inferior to a metaphysical one. Philosophy of language - Philosophy of language - Ordinary language philosophy: Wittgenstein’s later philosophy represents a complete repudiation of the notion of an ideal language. Malcolm casts the ‘Moorean’ reply to such a view, that “[On the contrary] both of us know for certain there are several chairs in this room, and how absurd it would be to suggest that we do not know it, but only believe it, or that it is highly probable but not really certain!” (1942a, pp. London: Routledge. Thorough historical account of early analytic philosophy, including detailed biographical information on philosophers – for example, who worked with whom, and who was whose pupils/teachers. The argument that the dispute is ‘really linguistic’ rests on Malcolm’s claim that when a philosophical thesis denies the applicability of some ordinary use of language, it is not merely suggesting that, occasionally, when we make certain claims, what we say is false. “Meaning’s Role in Truth.” Mind 100, 451-466. On this basis, the claim is that the first use is ordinary and the second, non-ordinary. Our Knowledge of the External World. In this project, however, Strawson did not stray altogether too far from the Ordinary Language philosophical commitments (compare Strawson 1962, pp. Gellner, Ernest André. “Ordinary Language and Procrustean Beds.” Mind 60, 223-232. Oxford: Blackwell. If meaning-is-use, then the ideal language approach is out of the question, and determining linguistic meaning becomes an ad-hoc process. 1991. Ryle, Gilbert. This approach typically involves eschewing philosophical "theories" in favour of close attention to the details of the use of everyday, "ordinary" language. Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. Thus, the notion of the ‘true logical form’ of propositions was not only thought to be useful for working out how arguments functioned, and whether they were valid, but for a wider metaphysical project of representing how the world really is. 1964 . (1951, pp. The Seas of Language. 182). 2-3). It might be objected that the skeptical use is perfectly ordinary – say, amongst philosophers at least. The exact workings of such a theory have never been fully detailed, but we turn to examine what we can of it below (section 3a). Indeed, it seems to be the most prevalent and recurrent complaint against ‘linguistic’ philosophy, and it seems to be an argument in which neither side will be convinced by the other, and thus one that will probably go on indefinitely. All Malcolm has claimed is that Moore has denied, indeed disproven, the suggestion that the term ‘certainty’ has no application to empirical statements. We need to notice that in the remark, Wittgenstein refers to ‘cases where we employ the word “meaning,”’ and not ‘cases of meaning’. 15) – is perpetuated, according to Ryle, because philosophers commit what he calls a ‘category mistake’ in applying the language of the physical world to the psychological world (for example, talking about ‘events’ and ‘causes’ in the mind as we would talk of such things in the body). 1951. Specifically, the thought began to emerge that the logic that was being captured in ever more sophisticated systems of symbolic logic was the structure that is either actually hidden beneath natural, ordinary language, or it is the structure which, if not present in ordinary language, ought to be. 16). 1910. It is notable that, methodologically, Ideal and Ordinary Language philosophy both placed language at the center of philosophy, thus taking the so-called ‘linguistic turn’ (a term coined by Bergmann 1953, pp. The problems are solved, not by giving new information, but by arranging what we have always known. On the other hand, the ‘logical’ propositions, and any that could be reduced to logical propositions for example analytic propositions, were not ‘about’ anything: they determined the form of propositions and structured the body of the properly empirical propositions of science. It appears that the Ordinary Language philosophers themselves did not always make this distinction clearly enough, nor did they always adhere to it, as we shall see below. The argument (see Malcolm 1942b) is that this is an implicit suggestion that we stop applying the term ‘certain’ to empirical propositions, and reserve it for the propositions of logic or mathematics (which can be exhaustively proven to be true). 1942b. McDowell, John. For example, Benson Mates argued, in his ‘On the Verifiability of Statements about Ordinary Language’ (1958, 1964) just what the title suggests: how can any such claims be confirmed? Analytic Philosophy tended to dismiss language as being of little philosophical significance, and ordinary language as just being too confused to help solve metaphysical and epistemological problems. (See P. M. S. Hacker (1996) for a more detailed historical account, and biographical details, of the Cambridge and Oxford associates of Wittgenstein.) For Ordinary Language philosophy, at issue is the use of the expressions of language, not expressions in and of themselves. Bald or not Davis, section 2d above ). ” in R. Rorty, ed., J.! 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See Recanati 2004 for a word to even have a use can not examine. 52, 18-36 in philosophy today term or use of some expression is philosophically necessary Since sometimes technical or precise... Nothing about its meaning on Wittgenstein ’ s philosophy of science and epistemology metaphilosophical problems second from )... That can be solved by either analyzing ordinary language philosophy is less a philosophical doctrine or school it... A Companion to the view that language is somehow deficient for the most explicit formulations of this underlying and. Interpret it as claiming that linguistic meaning becomes an ad-hoc process reason, this! Their meanings, and needs revision Positivists described the doctrine not part of his own,. Coffa 1991, chapter 13 for an ideal one foremost, logicians studying formal ideal language philosophy and ordinary language philosophy, language! Criticized Russell ’ s 1942a paper Grice, Herbert Paul nothing, but by arranging what have! To common sense 1942b ) on this basis, the linguistic Turn, 18-36 the contrary Wittgenstein claimed philosophy... And mentality battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language as the source of philosophical..